Even in autocracies the decision can reasonably be called the outcome of joint ventures. A decision should be both subjectively and objectively rational. For example, at the very rudimentary stage it is to be decided that time is quite ripe for taking a decision because a problem has arisen and in order to cope with it a decision is to be adopted. have a role no doubt but the real and important role is generally played by the bureaucrats. Decision-making is an important part of state administration and we should not have any hesitation in admitting that Snyder has done a seminal job by initiating and popularising the decision-making approach to politics. This may be called policy from the above. So rationality and utility are the two important criteria that lie at the heart of decision-making process. are essential as well as their interpretation and application appeared to be a must. Intertemporal choice is concerned with the kind of choice where different actions lead to outcomes that are realised at different stages over time. Richard Snyder has maintained that in every society there is political action and behind every action there is the role of human activity. (2005) Section 1.2: A truly interdisciplinary subject. Crozier, M. & Friedberg, E. 1995. Most decision-making theory has been developed in the twentieth century. The problem of pollution started to arise in the fifties and sixties and the authorities began to think about it in the eighties. The Greeks consult the Oracle of Delphi. During the heyday of Cold War period Washington was at loggerhead with Moscow without any valid reason. This creates a scope for a new model labelled as incrementalism. The decisions are made to serve definite purposes/purpose. When the policy maker proceeds to decide a policy it is his duty to bring all these factors into his active consideration. Selling insurance prior to the development of … Similarly, many liberal thinkers expressed their anti-state views in unequivocal terms. Statistical decision theory focuses on the investigation of decision making when uncertainty can be reduced by information acquired through experimentation. As far as decision making in nursing is concerned, all decision making theories are quite relevant and effective for different given circumstances. However, the central idea formulated and developed in the fifties continued to spread its wings and influence even in the seventies and early eighties. If the people feel that the decision implemented by the political authority of the state cannot meet their needs, they will not co-operate with the authority in this regard. If the formulators could not predict these problems implementation will face not only troubles, the very objective will remain unrealized. This is a tough job because the quality and efficacy of the decision depends to a large extent on the elements with the help of which it has been made. Every decision-making process produces a final choice, which may or may not prompt action. Decisions are quite common to all forms of political systems such as authoritarian structures, democratic set up, totalitarian regimes. For examples, it means the decision maker very carefully proceeds while he decides to take an action or announce a policy. The decision-making is a process and passes through a number of stages. On what basis the authority starts to evaluate the decision which has been implemented? Taking of a decision is not all it is to be properly formulated. So decision-making is a very important part of an organisation. Only in the fifties of the last century two persons, Herbert Simon and C.I. The revival of subjective probability theory, from the work of Frank Ramsey, Bruno de Finetti, Leonard Savage and others, extended the scope of expected utility theory to situations where subjective probabilities can be used. Rational actor model, Incremental model, Bureau­cratic organisation model and Belief system model. The consequence is the policy/decision becomes faulty. If rationality is not given due importance the decision-making process and the objective of public utility concerns will be adversely affected. In his solution, he defines a utility function and computes expected utility rather than expected financial value. The decision-making approach is not without any limitations. In democracy very often the political parties, pressure groups, public opinion, mass media, political agitation etc. So it is very important for the formulation of a policy for future generation. J. M. Keynes, observations influenced the British government to adopt anti-unemployment mea­sures. Without individuals (they may be bureaucrats, technocrats or any other person) the decision making concept will never be translated into reality. Following is the remark of a well-known author: “Indeed during the 1960s and 1970s a distinctive area of study, policy analysis was developed. The formulation of policy may aim either at short-term or long-term objectives. Fidel Castro, the President of Cuba, got economic and military assistance from communist Russia which was against American interest. In other words, conflict arises between rationality and reality or the general welfare of the bodypolitic. 6. Decision theory studies the logic and the mathematical properties of decision making under uncertainty. Rationality along with the data is the most important element of decision­-making process. To sum up, the decision-making means the adoption and application of rational choice for the management of private, business or governmental organisation in an efficient manner. Laibson's quasi-hyperbolic discounting). Research about decision-making is also published under the label problem solving, particularly in European psychological research. ), URL =. The administrator or the policy-maker uses the past experience while making policy and he moves very cautiously. From the mid-fifties to the end of fifties Richard Snyder published a series of writings whose chief objective was to propagate the importance of decision-making approach. Advocates for the use of probability theory point to: The proponents of fuzzy logic, possibility theory, quantum cognition, Dempster–Shafer theory, and info-gap decision theory maintain that probability is only one of many alternatives and point to many examples where non-standard alternatives have been implemented with apparent success; notably, probabilistic decision theory is sensitive to assumptions about the probabilities of various events, while non-probabilistic rules such as minimax are robust, in that they do not make such assumptions. They feel that policies are to be formulated in such a way that there will be enough scope of review and change when ever required. Considering all these some have divided the decision-making process into several models and these may be stated in the following ways: Rational actor model, Incremental model, Bureaucratic organisation model and Belief system model. But in practice this situation hardly prevails. It has been claimed by many, specifically by Robert Dahl (Modern Political Analysis, Fifth edition) that decision-making processes constitute the pure science of politics. 2. Implementation of the decision and the results obtained are the true barometer of the quality of the decision. If a situation is not recognised as typical, more energy needs to be spent to diagnose the situation, and additional information will be collected. It is known to all the students of international politics that today the term international society has earned wide publicity and all the nation-states are the members of this society. Snyder, therefore, claims that his decision-making approach is dynamic. He weighs all the aspects and sides of any venture. The answer depends partly on factors such as the expected rates of interest and inflation, the person's life expectancy, and their confidence in the pensions industry. The first is internal setting of the society: Internal setting includes many elements some of which are: The nature and functioning of the social organisation such as political parties, pressure groups, non-governmental organisations, public opinion, agencies helping the formation of public opinion, nature of the political system etc. For arriving at decision, it was thought, facts, data, information etc. 3. Of course, hundred percent successes in implementation can never be expected. Or the people may object to the policy or ideological or political grounds the implementation may cause problems. That is the policy/decision is the dynamic force of action. -We can ask what is the exact approach to the study of decision-making approach? Policy initiation is the crucial stage of decision-making. If so the real approach to the study of politics would be to conceptualise the analysis so that it can cope with dynamic aspects of society or the changes that are taking place very frequently. This line of argument, called the ludic fallacy, is that there are inevitable imperfections in modeling the real world by particular models, and that unquestioning reliance on models blinds one to their limits. Decision Makingwww.humanikaconsulting.com 2. For what purpose the authority is going to formulate a decision which means the motive of the policy maker. Viewed in this light Snyder claims that his approach may be applied in political science in general. The bureaucrats and related agencies have their own outlook, values and assessment about incidents and when policy making process starts the top government officers and allied agencies release their efforts to guide the formulation of policies in the light they cherish. The policy-maker knows that a policy cannot be made once for all. But this criticism is unfounded. But this does not get us all the way to making rationaldecisions in the real world; we do not yet really have a decisiontheory. It is generally believed that all these models unnecessarily create confusion in the minds of readers. It is absolutely unimaginable for a state; whatever may the extent of power (in military sense) and wealth be, to decide alone, to go alone and to live alone. It has been found that the nature of policy depends on the attitude, outlook and belief of the persons who provides the leadership in the formulation. There is hardly any importance of the political leadership in the bureaucratic organisation model. Though the problems are quite old taking of action had actually started in the last decade of the twentieth century. It is generally observed that in the present day world system domestic policy cannot be separated from world politics and a policy maker must keep this in mind. Analysis of policy-making processes also helps us to acquire a comprehensive knowledge about the dynamics of society. In fact, the liberal democratic system state does not play an overriding role. Here crops up a confusion. But we have analysed other models which highlight the other aspects of the decision-making approach. Roosevelt’s role in New Deal period is known to many. Thirdly, there is a decision-making approach for international politics. In general, such consequences are not known with certainty but are expressed as a set of probabilistic outcomes. Hansson, Sven Ove. His movement comprises also very small steps. Duties must be assigned, deadlines must be set, evaluation process must be established and contingency plans must be … Again the policy/decision-making is a composite which means number of persons is involved in the preparation. In one of his writings Herbert Simon has said that decision or decision making “is a matter of compromise”. The critics observe that what holds good for one discipline may not hold good for another discipline. This is called evaluation. The economic theory of decision making is a theory about how to pre- dict such decisions. This is unusual. Decision making 1. Needless to say that here, the communication network function and the political system fully utilises this for its purpose. And at what cost? Policy is not prepared once for all, rather it is made step by step and the decision-maker proceeds stage by stage. Scholars, writers and academics are very important factors. However even with all those factors taken into account, human behavior again deviates greatly from the predictions of prescriptive decision theory, leading to alternative models in which, for example, objective interest rates are replaced by subjective discount rates. Policy-makers and politicians fall under this category because of the accountability. The chief objective is to study the success and failure of the policy. It collects facts, data or information about the decision and on the basis of all these the evaluation task is done. The Marxists also formulate policy for radical changes of society. A policy is initiated, generally, in the background of problems or critical issues. For this particular reason the exponents (particularly C. E. Lindblom) have propounded a thesis that it is a continuous process. 9. 3. She formulated a number of policies whose core elements constitute deregulation and privatization combined with authoritarian social policy. The policy must be stated in clear terms and the objectives shall be stated clearly. Herbert Simon, in fact, is the pioneer in the field of decision-making concept because he felt that if decision were not taken properly and timely that may spoil the objective of the business organisation and keeping this in mind it is essential that an organisation will resort to utmost caution as to the adoption of decision and at the same time will focus on the implementation of the decision. The policy makers of a communist country will not formulate such a policy as will violate basic principles of communism although rationality demands the violation. About the stages in decision making, Simon identifies three criteria: (a) Intelligence: Searching for problems, and identifying and defining problems that demand action. Here several conceptual processes are mingled together. Policy formulation also has a stage. So these are the three different approaches. It is interesting to note that Snyder, Simon and Bernard are contemporary. All these are made easy by a high degree of socialisation. For this situation the decision or the decision-making process is not at all responsible. But as per above discussion, it can be said that the cognitive continuum theory would be the most suitable, considerable and reliable theory to select for the nursing decision making process. 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